24 février 2017

Catégorie : Doctorant

Supervisors :

- Raphael F. Garcia (HDR)
- Roland Martin (HDR)

Research teams :

- ISAE Recherche / DEOS / SSPA
- UPS/OMP/GET/ Equipe Géophysique

funding :

French DoD

Numerical simulations of the propagation of sound and gravity waves in planetary atmospheres do not currently give an exact description of the propagation of waves in 3D models from the surface to the limits of the thermosphere. The SSPA team of ISAE-SUPAERO, in collaboration with the geophysics' team of GET laboratory in Toulouse and the LMA in Marseille, is developing such a tool as part of a thesis that began in September 2014. The numerical tools developed in this framework (Brissaud et al., 2016, Brissaud et al., Submitted) make it possible to model the propagation of seismic, acoustic and gravity waves in solid/atmosphere coupled systems including surface topography and atmospheric models whose properties vary only as a function of altitude (wind profile, attenuation, changes in sound velocity and density). These tools have been validated, but they are currently limited to 2D applications in idealized atmospheres (isotherm for example).

Despite these limitations, the applications of the tool are already innumerable (explosions, influence of climatic variations on wave propagation, propagation of seismic waves in the atmosphere ...). We would like to dedicate a doctoral student to the implementation of a 3D tool in realistic models of planetary systems on a global scale (Earth, Venus, Mars).

For terrestrial applications, ISAE-SUPAERO's SSPA team is funded by the DGA both to develop balloon instrumentation for infrasound measurement, and has co-funded this thesis to develop tools for modeling of these measurements. For the planetary part, the SSPA team participates in two JPL Venus mission studies (NASA) to image the internal structure of Venus using atmospheric waves created by earthquakes (Garcia et al., 2005). The first project aims to develop a payload for the measurement of infrasounds on balloons, and thus joins the terrestrial instrumentation. The second one concerns the detection of these acoustic waves of seismic origin from the Venus orbit by imaging the variations of ariglow emissions of the upper atmosphere. In addition, proponents are also heavily involved in the NASA INSIGHT mission (also in collaboration with JPL / Caltech), which will go to Mars in 2018 and for which seismological and infrasound sensors will also constrain the internal structure of Mars (Garcia et al ., 2016).

The objective of the thesis will be to explore the atmospheric signals (acoustic waves and gravity waves) created by the entry of bolides in the upper atmosphere, seismic vibrations of the ground, and atmospheric explosions (volcanoes, impacts of meteorites...) . This in order to define instrument specifications for future infrasound measurements on balloons in the atmospheres of Venus and Earth, but also to determine the characteristics of the sources and to image the propagation medium from the signals measured by the ballon experiments and the INSIGHT mission to Mars. Particular attention will be paid to the study of the effects of topography and winds on the propagation of waves.

First, the objective will be to extend the domain of simulations to regional and global scales in 3D and to integrate realistic atmospheric models in order to have a good representativeness of the coupled solid / ocean / Atmosphere of the planets considered. In addition, optimized absorbing boundary conditions will have to be developed in order to reduce the calculation costs.

Then, in order to determine the structure of the propagation medium (atmosphere, solid part of the planets), the student will have to set up and validate a modeling of the source of atmospheric waves, in particular for sources located in the atmosphere such as meteorite entries and sources from atmospheric dynamics (dust devils on Mars, polar vortex on Venus...). For this purpose, the combined use of acoustic and gravity waves (intrinsic to the simulation tool) will allow to remove the uncertainty on the source parameters.

The student will also develop data inversion tools to image the structure of the propagation medium. Depending on the type of source (earthquakes, explosion, atmospheric excitation, etc.) and its characterization level (spatio-temporal position, frequency content, etc.), but also depending on the type of sensor (ground or balloon pressure sensor, seismometer), various tools will be implemented to minimize the effect of uncertainties on the characteristics of the source in the imagery of the atmosphere.

European (or swiss) nationality required.

Master of atmospheric sciences, geophysics, planetology, universe science, applied mathematics, preferentially with an engineer diploma. Scientific curiosity, interest for space exploration and numerical modeling, teamwork capabilities.

- Brissaud Q.,
**R. Martin**,**R.F. Garcia**, D. Komatitsch, submitted,*Hybrid Galerkin numerical modeling of elastodynamics and compressible Navier-Stokes couplings: applications to seismo-gravito acoustic waves*, Geophys. J. Int. **Roland Martin**, Sébastien Chevrot, Dimitri Komatitsch, L. Seoane, S. Bonvalot, G. Dufréchou and S. Bruinsma, A high-order 3D spectral-element method for the forward modelling and inversion of gravimetric data - Application to the western Pyrenees,*Geophysical Journal International*, in press (2017).**Garcia R.F.,**Q. Brissaud, L. Rolland,**R.Martin**, D. Komatitsch, A. Spiga, P. Lognonné, B. Banerdt, 2016,*Finite-Difference Modeling of Acoustic and Gravity Wave Propagation in Mars Atmosphere: Application to Infrasounds Emitted by Meteor Impacts*, Space Science Reviews, doi:10.1007/s11214-016-0324-6- Brissaud Q.,
**R. Martin**,**R.F. Garcia**, D. Komatitsch, 2016,*Finite-difference numerical modelling of gravito-acoustic wave propagation in a windy and attenuating atmosphere*, Geophys. J. Int., doi: 10.1093/gji/ggw121 - Zhinan Xie, René Matzen, Paul Cristini, Dimitri Komatitsch and
**Roland Martin**. A perfectly matched layer for fluid-solid problems: Application to ocean-acoustics simulations with solid ocean bottoms,*Journal of the Acoustical Society of America*, vol. 140(1), p. 165-175, doi: 10.1121/1.495 - Zhinan Xie, Dimitri Komatitsch,
**Roland Martin**and René Matzen, Improved forward wave propagation and adjoint-based sensitivity kernel calculations using a numerically stable finite-element PML,*Geophysical Journal International*, vol. 198(3), p. 1714-1747, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu219 (2014)4736 (2016) **Garcia****R.F.**, E. Doornbos, S. Bruinsma, H. Hébert, 2014,*Atmospheric**gravity**waves**due**to**the**Tohoku-Oki**tsunami**observed**in**the**thermosphere**by**GOCE*, J.Geophys.Res. 119, 4498-4506, DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021120**Garcia****R.F.**, S. Bruinsma, P. Lognonné, E. Doornbos, F. Cachoux, 2013,*GOCE:**the**first**seismometer**in**orbit ar**ound**the**Earth*, Geophys.Res.Lett.40,1–6,doi:10.1002/grl.50205**Roland Martin**, Dimitri Komatitsch, Stephen D. Gedney and Émilien Bruthiaux, A high-order time and space formulation of the unsplit perfectly matched layer for the seismic wave equation using Auxiliary Differential Equations (ADE-PML).*Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences*, vol. 56(1), p. 17-42 (2010).**Roland****Martin**and Couder-Castaneda, Carlos. An improved unsplit and convolutional perfectly matched layer absorbing technique for the navier-stokes equations using cut-off frequency shift. Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences(CMES), 63, 1, 44-77, 2010.**Garcia****R.F.,**P. Drossart, G. Piccioni, M. Lopès Valverde, 2009,*Gravity**waves**in**Venus**upper**atmosphere**revealed**by**CO2**Non**Local**Thermodynamic**Equilibrium**emissions*, J.Geophys.Res.,114,E00B32,doi:10.1029/2008JE003073,2009**Roland Martin**, Dimitri Komatitsch, Céline Blitz and Nicolas Le Goff, Simulation of seismic wave propagation in an asteroid based upon an unstructured MPI spectral-element method: blocking and non-blocking communication strategies,*Lecture Notes in Computer Science*, vol. 5336, p. 350-363 (2008).

(c) GdR 720 ISIS - CNRS - 2011-2015.